For terms specific to the Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) see TIP Glossary
The continuing, cooperative and comprehensive planning process. The 3C process is a federal requirement for metropolitan planning organizations.
Air Quality Subcommittee (AQS)
The Air Quality Subcommittee provides advice and policy recommendations to the Governing Board with regard to air quality strategies and issues.
Akron Metropolitan Area Transportation Study (AMATS)
Metropolitan planning or ganization for Summit and Portage counties, including the City of Akron.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
AASHTO is the standards and criteria organization of all states and territories. This organization sets standards for all road and street construction.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
Federal law that requires that public buildings, transportation facilities and services be made fully accessible to persons with disabilities. Transportation operators must also offer complementary or supplementary paratransit services in areas where they operate fixed route transit service.
Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations (AMPO)
Organization established to advocate for the needs and interest s of metropolitan planning organizations nationwide.
Average Daily Traffic (ADT)
Number of vehicles that pass a fixed point during the average work day.
Bicycle Pedestrian Advisory Council (BPAC)
The BPAC works to help NOACA achieve Transportation Plan Goal 4 (increase modal choices) by encouraging and facilitating the use of multimodal transportation. The BPAC also assists in planning for safe and accessible pedestrian facilities.
Brunswick Transit Alternative (BTA)
A transit service for the City of Brunswick.
Central Business District (CBD)
The commercial core of a city, typically the location of the most employment within a city.
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA)
Federal law that identifies mobile sources (vehicles) as the primary source of pollution and requires adherence to stringent air quality standards.
Clean Water Act (CWA)
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
National water quality policy developed to address almost any type of water quality problem.
A clean burning, alternative fuel for vehicles.
Congestion Management System (CMS)
Process for identifying congestion on the transportation system and proposing solutions from a series of approved management strategies.
Congestion Mitigation/Air Quality (CMAQ)
Program contained in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21 st Century Act that provides funds for transportation and transportation related projects and activities which reduce congestion and improve air quality.
Cuyahoga River Community Planning Organization (CRCPO)
Nonprofit organization dedicated to stewardship of the Cuyahoga River watershed.
Cuyahoga River RAP Coordinating Committee (CCC)
Diesel Emissions Reduction Grant (DERG) Program
Committee that oversees development and implementation of the Cuyahoga River Remedial Action Plan.
This program provides funding for diesel engine replacement or the retrofit of diesel technologies with the goal of improving air quality. It is a collaborative effort of the Ohio Department of Development, the Ohio Department of Transportation, and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The program is funded with Congestion Mitigation/Air Quality (CMAQ) dollars set aside for it in the state budget (H.B. 66). Diesel engine replacement/retrofitting is a clean air strategy supported by NOACA.
Enhanced Mobility for Seniors and Individuals with Disabilities Program (Section 5310)
The 5310 program provides capital and operating grants to help private non-profit corporations and public agencies provide coordinated transportation services that are planned, designed, and carried out to meet the needs of seniors and individuals with disabilities in the Cleveland Urbanized Area.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Environmental Justice (EJ)
Federal regulatory agency that oversees air and water quality standards, planning and projects.
Balancing the benefits and burdens of governmental policies so that no racial, ethnic or socioeconomic group bears a disproportionate share of negative consequences.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Division of the United States Department of Transportation that funds highway planning, research and construction.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA)
Fine Particle Pollution Program (FP3)
The Federal agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation responsible for administering the federally aided transit programs for capital and operating assistance to states and designated recipients.
The Fine Particle Pollution Program partners NOACA, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency,
the Air Quality Divisions of the Cities of Cleveland and Akron, the Akron Metropolitan Area
Transportation Study, and Lake County General Health District in an effort to monitor levels of fine particle air pollution and advise the public when this pollution is reaching unhealthy levels. Fine particle pollution consists of microscopic particles released into the air from car and truck exhausts, industrial processes, and many other sources. Fine particles can bypass the human body’s defense mechanisms and negatively affect heart and lung functions.
Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA)
Public transit operator for Cuyahoga County.
Geauga County Transit (GCT)
Public transit operator for Geauga County.
Guaranteed Ride Home (GRH)
Benefit offered to commuters in the region who carpool or vanpool. Commuters may be reimbursed for a taxi ride home if they must leave work unexpectedly due to illness, unexpected overtime or other emergency.
High Occupant Vehicle (HOV)
A vehicle transporting two or more persons to a given destination, as opposed to a vehicle with a single occupant. In some areas of the country, HOV lanes on the interstates are designated for exclusive use by high occupant vehicles, e.g., carpools, vanpools and transit.
Highway Trust Fund (HTF)
An account established by law to hold Federal highway-user taxes that are dedicated for highway and transit related purposes. The HTF has two accounts: the Highway Account, and the Mass Transit Account.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
Technological tools that facilitate better transportation system maintenance and operations. For
example, freeway video surveillance allows staff to monitor congestion and emergency vehicle
response to freeway incidents.
Intergovernmental Review and Consultation (IGRC)
Intergovernmental Review and Consultation provides an opportunity for local governments and organizations to review and comment on proposed federal-aid transportation projects and programs potentially impacting their community. The purpose of IGRC, a component of the quarterly Project Planning Review (PPR) process, is to ensure:
- Coordination with existing projects/programs and
- Conformity with local and regional planning efforts
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA)
Federal surface transportation law enacted in 1991 and expired in 1997. It preceded the Transportation Efficiency Act for the 21st Century.
International Joint Commission (IJC)
U.S./Canadian organization that oversees Great Lakes water quality. The IJC designated the Cuyahoga and Black Rivers as two of 43 "areas of concern," prompting Remedial Action Plans for these Lake Erie tributaries.
Public transit operator for Lake County.
Level of Service (LOS)
A method of describing the operating condition of an intersection, highway or street (e.g., LOS "A" denotes a free flowing traffic condition with no delays; LOS "F" denotes severe traffic congestion with considerable delay).
Local Public Agency (LPA)
Local Public Agency refers to any local governmental entity eligible to participate in the federal transportation program. Usually this is a City or County government, "Rails-to-Trails District," or Transit property.
Lorain County Transit (LCT)
Public transit operator for Lorain County.
Major Investment Study (MIS)
In-depth study of a highway corridor or transportation asset. An MIS focuses on analyzing a variety of alternatives in order to select the best solution for improving mobility in the corridor.
Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21 st Century (MAP-21)
Current surface transportation law for highway and transit programs, authorizing levels of highway and transportation funding and the role of regional planning organizations. MAP-21 was signed into a law on July 6, 2012, and is the first long-term highway authorization enacted since 2005.
Medina County Public Transit (MCPT)
Public transit operator for Medina County.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)
A transportation policy-making organization made up of representatives from local governments and transportation entities. MPOs ensure that expenditures for transportation projects and programs within a metropolitan area are based on a comprehensive, continuing and cooperative (3-C) planning process. NOACA is one of 17 MPOs in the state of Ohio.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
Federal health based standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency for allowable concentrations and exposure limits for various pollutants.
National Association of Regional Councils (NARC)
National organization focused on advocating the interests of a variety of regional organizations including metropolitan planning organizations.
National Highway Performance Program (NHPP)
The NHPP combines Interstate Maintenance, National Highway System (NHS), and Highway Bridge programs.
National Highway System (NHS)
A classification of roads authorized by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. The system is comprised of interstate highways and roads designated as important for interstate travel, national defense, intermodal connections and international commerce. Certain federal funds are designated solely for projects on the National Highway System.
Northeast Ohio Four County Regional Development and Planning Organization (NEFCO)
Water quality planning agency serving Portage, Stark, Summit and Wayne Counties.
Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD)
Agency that oversees sanitary and storm sewer systems for a major portion of Cuyahoga County and other areas of Northeast Ohio.
Ohio Association of Regional Councils (OARC)
Organization focused on serving the interests of regional councils and metropolitan planning organizations in Ohio.
Ohio Consolidated Planning Grant (OCPG)
The term Ohio uses for federal MPO planning funds that get passed through the states to the MPOs.
Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT)
Agency that oversees planning and implementation for all modes of transportation in the state of Ohio. ODOT Districts 3 and 12 cover transportation improvements in the NOACA five-county area.
Overall Work Program (OWP)
A document which describes all ongoing NOACA planning programs and includes objectives, previous work, methodology, public involvement, products and linkage to other projects.
Project Planning Review (PPR)
NOACA’s Regional Transportation Investment Policy (RTIP) requires Project Planning Review (PPR) for all new projects proposed for the Transportation Plan and/or Transportation Improvement Program (TIP). PPR is also required for projects that undergo a change of scope or a cost increase greater than 20 percent. Project Planning Review has five components:
- Staff Review
- Committee Review
- Intergovernmental Review and Consultation (IGRC)
- Public Involvement
- Governing Board Review
Regional Pavement Management Program (RPM)
A computer-based program that assesses roadways and projects future road maintenance needs and estimated costs. The program requires a database of current pavement condition information for all roadways to be assessed.
Regional Transportation Investment Policy (RTIP)
Document that identifies NOACA policies regarding planning, programming and prioritizing regional transportation projects that will be implemented with NOACA-controlled federal aid.
Remedial Action Plan (RAP)
Coordinated strategy for cleaning up pollution in the region's rivers and streams designated by the
International Joint Commission as Great Lakes Areas of Concern.
Roadway Safety Audit (RSA)
Study undertaken at a high accident location in the region, to identify traffic problems and recommend low-cost, easily implemented improvements for the location.
Safe, Accountable, Flexible and Efficient Transportation Equity Act of 2005-a Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)
Federal surface transportation law enacted in 1991 and expired in 1997. Congress renewed its funding formulas ten times after its expiration date, until replacing the bill with Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act in 2012.
Safe Routes to Schools program (SRTS)
Federal funding program that enables and encourages children to walk and bike safely to school. Eligible projects and programs for SRTS funding include sidewalk improvements, traffic calming devices, crosswalk signal systems, on-street bicycle facilities, bicycle parking, and safety education.
Specialized Transportation Program
The Specialized Transportation Program (Section 5310) provides federal funds for mobility management projects, vehicles and equipment to support transportation services for the elderly and people with disabilities in northeast Ohio. The program is administered by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) with assistance from NOACA.
State Implementation Plan (SIP)
Document required of states for approval by the Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act, which contains projects and program s designed to bring the state and non-conforming metropolitan areas into compliance with clean air standards.
State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP)
Statewide, four-year listing of highway, transit and bikeway projects eligible to receive federal funding.
Surface Transportation Program (STP)
A funding program contained in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act. Funds may be used for a variety of transportation improvements, including capital costs for highway and transit improvements. These can include safety projects, road construction, reconstruction, resurfacing, rehabilitation and operational improvements, rail projects, bicycle and pedestrian projects, etc.
Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ)
The smallest geographic area used for computer travel simulation. The number of homes, population, employment, etc. per TAZ are estimated for existing and future years for use in trip generation.
Transit Council (TC)
A council under NOACA’s Transportation Advisory Committee (TAC) that advises the TAC on transit-related issues.
Transportation Alternatives Program (TAP)
The Transportation Alternatives Program (TAP} is a federal funding program intended to help expand transportation choices and enhance the transportation experience. Eligible activities include on-and off-road pedestrian and bicycle facilities, infrastructure projects for improving non-driver access to public transportation and enhanced mobility, community improvement activities, environmental mitigation, recreational trail program projects, and safe routes to school projects.
Transportation Control Measures (TCM)
Actions intended to impact traffic patterns and/or vehicle use in order to reduce air pollution. These may include carpooling and vanpooling, right turn on red options, high occupant vehicle lanes and flextime measures, among others.
Transportation Demand Management (TDM)
Strategies to reduce peak period automobile trips by encouraging the use of carpools, vanpools, mass transit, flexible and staggered work hours, telecommuting and parking incentives, which reduce the volume of travel in a defined area and daily number of vehicle trips.
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP)
Fiscally-constrained four-year listing of federally funded highway, transit and bikeway projects scheduled for implementation in NOACA's five counties. Without TIP inclusion, a project is ineligible for federal funding. Projects must be in the MPO’s long-range transportation plan in orderto be eligible for inclusion in the TIP.
Transportation for Livable Communities Initiative (TLCI)
NOACA program that offers funding a nd technical assistance to communities for planning transportation projects that strengthen community livability. The TLCI features three programs:
- Planning Grant Program - provides federal funding for planning transportation improvements that meet TLCI goals.
- Neighborhood Planning Technical Assistance–provides staff technical assistance for planning medium to large scale transportation improvements that meet TLCI goals (in urban core communities).
- Links Technical Assistance–free technical assistance for planning small-scale traffic studies that advance TLCI goals.
Transportation Management Area (TMA)
Defined by federal law for urbanized areas over 200,000 in population. Metropolitan planning organizations select transportation projects for federal funding within TMA boundaries.
Transportation Plan (TP)
Federally required long-range regional transportation plan that shows a 20-year vision for the region’s transportation system. The transportation plan contains analyses of current and projected transportation system conditions and an analysis of future traffic, demographic, socioeconomic and other trends. The plan also contains a fiscally constrained list of transportation projects. Additional projects are amended to the plan regularly.
Transportation Review Advisory Council (TRAC)
Nine-member panel established by the Ohio General Assembly to guide the Ohio Department of Transportation in selecting significant transportation improvements statewide to fund with Major New Construction funding.
Transportation System Management (TSM)
Cost-effective, limited build improvements to the transportation system with a goal of ensuring efficient use of the existing system. Improvements include actions to reduce vehicle use, facilitate traffic flow and encourage transit use.
Urbanized Area (UZA)
An Urbanized Area is an urban place whose population equals or exceeds 50,000 as determined by the latest U.S. Decennial Census. The U.S. Census Bureau includes contiguous census districts whose population density exceeds 1,000 persons per square mile.
Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT)
The total distance traveled in miles by all motor vehicles in a given area over a given time period.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
Another name for hydrocarbons, a precursor of ozone. VOCs result from the incomplete combustion of fuel.
Water Quality Subcommittee (WQS)
The Water Quality Advisory Committee provides advice and policy recommendations to the Governing Board with regard to the agency’s water quality management issues and strategies.